What are Heat Maps and should you really trust Heat Maps?

Ok, we (I mean all digital/online marketers at the very least) all know what Heat maps are and what it is used for. If you don’t, very simply Heat Maps shows you EXACTLY (really?) where people are (or not) clicking on your website. With this information, you can then:

  • find the best position for your form fields or buttons
  • move your Call-to-actions (CTAs) to make them more visible
  • see which banners or sales ads are clicked more often, etc

In case you don’t know, there are basically 3 types of Heatmaps (Source: Hotjar):

  1. Click Maps – helps you determine where your visitors are clicking or tapping (if they are on a mobile/tablet). These heatmaps help you quickly uncover issues with your page – for example, are visitors clicking your links? Or are they clicking areas that aren"t links?
  2. Move/Attention Heatmaps – show where visitors have moved their mouse on the screen.
  3. Scroll Heatmaps – used to show you how far down your visitors scroll.

The next big question that comes is: Should we really trust Heat Maps? How do we know if it is really accurate? People might be looking at things that they don’t hover over or maybe they are just hovering over things that are not important? Conversionxl has an article as to why accuracy of mouse movement heatmaps is questionable.

Click Maps on the other hand is probably more useful where you can see when people click on things that aren’t links. If you discover something (an image, sentence, or whatever) that people want to click on, but isn’t a link, then either make it into a link, or don’t make it look like a link.

Scroll maps are also useful where it shows you where users tend to drop off, and can be very useful (helps with prioritising content as well).

Attention maps help you see which parts of the websites are most visible to all users, across all browsers and devices. They help you decide where to put your value prop and other important elements.

User session replays

This isn’t really a ‘heat map’ per se, but is the most valuable bit in most tools that offer heat maps.

Use session replays allow you to record video sessions of people going through your site. It’s kind of like user testing, but has no script and no audio. But people are risking with their actual money – so it can be more insightful.


This is more qualitative data. You’re trying to detect bottlenecks and usability issues. Where are people not able to complete actions? Where do they give up?. One of the best use cases for session replays is watching how people fill out forms. Though you could configure event tracking for Google Analytics, it wouldn’t provide the level of insight as user session replays. Also, if you have a page that is performing badly, and you don’t know why, then you can watch user session replays to figure out possible problems. You can also see how fast they read, scroll down the page, etc. Analysing them is, of course, timely. User session replays are irreplaceable tools in your arsenal.

Search Marketing Attribution – % Of Non-Brand Keywords Drive Branded Keywords Conversions/Sales?

Over the years, there have been tons of articles or research regarding marketing attribution. The most common talked about are first click/interaction and last click/interaction. Some other attribution modeling includes ‘time decay’, ‘linear’ and ‘position based’. Google analytics list some of these examples:


In the “Last Interaction” attribution model, the last touch point — in this case the Email channel — would receive 100% of the credit for the sale.

In the “First Interaction” attribution model, the first touch point — in this case the Paid Advertising channel — would receive 100% of the credit for the sale.

In the “Linear” attribution model, each touch point in the conversion path — in this case the Paid Advertising, Social Network, and Email channels – share equal credit (33.3% each) for the sale.

In the “Time Decay” attribution model, the touch points closest in time to the sale or conversion get most of the credit. In this particular sale, the Email and Social Network channels would receive the most credit because the customer interacted with them on the day of the conversion. Since the Paid Advertising interaction occurred one week earlier, this channel would receive significantly less credit.

In the “Position Based” attribution model, 40% credit is assigned to the first interaction, 20% credit is assigned to the middle interactions, and 40% credit is assigned to the last interaction. The Paid and Email channels would each receive 40% credit, while the Social Network would receive 20% credit.

Definition of Attribution

So first of all, what is exactly marketing attribution? To explain this simply, attribution is about understanding which of your marketing channels or advertising contributed to a sale or conversion on your website. Using a soccer analogy, last click/interaction would be like attributing the goal (conversion) to Lionel Messi (striker), the goal scorer. With first click/interaction, the goal would be attributed from the assist provided by Xavi (midfielder), where his assist was made possible by Carles Puyol (defender) who broke up an attack from the opposition and launched a counter attack. If you a basketball fan instead of a soccer fan, below is a YouTube video that uses the basketball example:

Below we also have an image that illustrates how attribution funnels work from Zappos:

Many of the discussions and research I have seen are how first click influences or contributes to last click conversions example using the soccer analogy above. Or how other ‘first click’ marketing or advertising efforts such as display or social media drives conversions on the last click which could be from paid search, etc.

However, so far I have not seen much information in regards to how non-brand paid search advertising contributes to branded conversions. To answer this question, I had a looked at 10 retail clients/websites’ conversion funnels over a 30-day period and with 12 months worth of data (if available). The average percentage (%) of branded conversions came via non-branded keywords as a first click was between 1.21% (lowest) to 7.86% (highest). One of the trends I did noticed was that the percentage gets higher with more well-known brands as compared to lesser-known brands.

Therefore, with this data, one of the question to ask is when we measure branded performance, should we also be adding these percentages to the total branded performance as well?

What Is The Average Click Through Rate (CTR) Of Display/Content and Search Ads?

What Is The Average Click Through Rate (CTR)?

Following on from my last post about the average bounce rate, I have decided to write about what is the average click thru rate (CTR) on different networks and devices. Similar to the average bounce rate question, many clients have asked me questions such as ‘what is the average click through rate of display or content ads?’ or ‘average CTR of mobile or search ads’ etc. Therefore, I have decided to collect 12 months of data across different industries that will help to answer many of these questions. The below data is for a full year period from 1st of Jan 2012 to 31st of Dec 2012 across 200 websites and will highlight the average CTR of different devices and networks such as:

  • Display, Google search and Search partners network
  • Computers/Desktop, Mobile and Tablet devices
Average Click Through Rate (CTR) Total
Display Network 0.13%
Computers 0.10%
Mobile devices with full browsers 0.24%
Tablets with full browsers 0.23%
Google search 4.79%
Computers 4.90%
Mobile devices with full browsers 3.71%
Tablets with full browsers 6.44%
Search partners 0.64%
Computers 0.62%
Mobile devices with full browsers 1.18%
Tablets with full browsers 0.50%
Grand Total 0.95%

As you can see from the above, the average CTR for:

  1. Display (content) network ad is 13%. Other sources report about 0.05% to 0.4% but not sure if this is accurate as 0.4% is a pretty high metric for display network.
  2. Google search network ad is 79% (This of course include brand terms which will get much higher CTR than non-branded terms). Other source reports about 2%
  3. Search network partners ad is 64%. Other source reports about 0.36% (data only for 1 client though)

Is your average CTR stat below or above the data presented? and do you have data that you would like to share with me, if you do, please email me or put through your comments.

Just in case, you are curious how Click-Through-Rate (CTR) is calculated. It’s pretty simple, this will be amount of clicks / amount of impressions. Example, if you have 2 clicks from 100 impressions this will be a CTR of 2%. Click Thru Rate (CTR) is a way of measuring how successful/effective your ads are and you should be spending time to optimise your CTR if your stats are way below the above averages.

What Is The Average Bounce Rate?

Many customers and people have asked me these questions before: “What is the average bounce rate of websites”? “Is my bounce rate good or bad”? In fact, I don’t really know what is the exact answer to the first question. First of all it really depends on what type of websites you have and the industry you are in. Also, where they are coming from and also what source or keywords they found you and enter your site. If it is brand keywords, then I would think most websites definitely have a bounce rate of less than 10%. If not, your brand is either a generic word, there are other companies with the same brand name or you have a serious problem with your brand. if it the source is broader or more generic, then a high bounce rate is definitely understandable. On average, I would think that a 30 to 40% bounce rate is acceptable across all sources.

Actually, what is exactly bounce rate? This is also one question that I have been asked many times before as well and I bet most people don’t exactly know what is bounce rate and how it is measured. Bounce rate as defined by Wikipedia is:

The percentage of visitors who enter the site and “bounce" (leave the site) rather than continue viewing other pages within the same site.

A bounce occurs when a web site visitor only views a single page on a website, that is, the visitor leaves a site without visiting any other pages before a specified session-timeout occurs. There is no industry standard minimum or maximum time by which a visitor must leave in order for a bounce to occur. Rather, this is determined by the session timeout of the analytics tracking software.


  • Rb = Bounce rate
  • Tv = Total number of visitors viewing one page only
  • Te = Total entries to page

A visitor may bounce by:

  • Clicking on a link to a page on a different web site
  • Closing an open window or tab
  • Typing a new URL
  • Clicking the “Back" button to leave the site
  • Session timeout

A commonly used session timeout value is 30 minutes. In this case, if a visitor views a page, doesn"t look at another page, and leaves his or her browser idle for longer than 30 minutes, they will register as a bounce. If the visitor continues to navigate after this delay, a new session will occur.
The bounce rate for a single page is the number of visitors who enter the site at a page and leave within the specified timeout period without viewing another page, divided by the total number of visitors who entered the site at that page. In contrast, the bounce rate for a web site is the number of web site visitors who visit only a single page of a web site per session divided by the total number of web site visits.

Now back to the question again. What is the average bounce rate? Most online sources I have read have reported an average bounce rate of around 40%. There’s quite a lot of articles on Google that will tell you what is the average bounce rate. Kissmetrics report an average bounce rate of 40.5% and they’ve got a cool infographics and pdf regarding this topic. Enjoy.

How To Grow Your Brand & Market Share

Marketers and CEOs, how do you grow your brand or your company"s market share & sales volume? A few years ago, I posted on my blog titled ‘what is your marketing iq?" which has all the answers. The answer is actually quite simple, so simple that most don"t know the answer. Most company would think that the answer is to get existing customers to increase their purchase frequency i.e. buy more from you or by increasing customer loyalty. This is why so many companies allocate a substantial amount of their marketing budgets towards customer loyalty program. But in fact, this is not true. The answer to growth is to actually get more customers or buyers. This is not too hard to understand, imagine there are a 1000 people in your market and you have 700 people who are your customers. This is 70% of the market share and thus making you the market leader. Having 100 out of a 1000 people buying multiples times from you still doesn"t change the fact that you only have 10% market share. Simple, isn"t it?

If you are interested to know more how about brands grow, you need to visit this website or buy this book from Professor Byron Sharp titled ‘How Brands Grow‘. There are alot of marketing knowledge from this book where most marketers don"t know:

1. Growth in market share comes by increasing popularity; that is by gaining more buyers (of all types), most of whom are light customers buying the brand only occasionally.
2. Brands, even though they are usually slightly differentiated, mainly compete as if they are near lookalikes; but they vary in popularity (and hence market share)
3. Brand competion and growth is largely about building two market based assets: physical availability and mental availability. Brands that are easier to buy – for more people, in more situations – have more market share. Innovation and differentiation (when they work) build market based assets, which last after competitors copy the innovation.

Google Local Business Optimization – How to Increase your Google Local Business Results / Listings

Recently, I have been spending a lot of my time over the last few months, researching and experimenting, on how to get on the 1st page of the Google local business results. Many of my successful listings are through constant testing & experimentation.

Google’s local business listings is a great opportunity to get yourself up in the rankings of Google for your relevant geographical keywords much easier and quicker than Search Engine Optimisation (SEO) and the best thing of all, it is free!

Here are some proven techniques/ways that I have used to get many of my own and clients’ websites successfully on the local business listings:

1. Get as many free listings in the local directories as possible. One tip to find these local directories is to check the ‘web pages’ under the details of the local business listings. Sometimes these web pages will show you the local directories they are listed on.

2. Optimise the title/name in the local directories for the keyword you want, eg if you want to rank for ‘Sydney Widgets’, have this in your title/name.

3. Same with the above, optimise the company/organization name in the local business centre for your keyword. (I got a successful listing for a couple of keywords just by optimizing the name, of which these keywords ranking for don’t even have a website).

4. Under the address information in local business centre, make sure you have the city location chosen as the city you want listing for.

5. Under the description in the local business centre, optimise it for the keywords you want. Of course, don’t spam it!

6. Under the categories of the local business centre, choose the most relevant category. Also, you can add in manually the category. In this case, add in ‘Sydney Widgets’.

7. When you upload your photos, try to optimise it (name of the file) for the keyword as well (I guess all of what I have mentioned are some basics of Search engine optimization (SEO)

8. Make sure you enter in as many details as possible in the local business centre, example hours of operations, payment options, upload photos & videos if you have, and other additional details as well. The more details you put in, the more the Google local business centre’s algorithm will see you as a serious listing and therefore making your listing more successful.

9. Try to add coupons if you can as this will definitely help. As mentioned before, videos will also help a lot.

10. Reviews seem like one of the important criteria that Google looks at when assigning rankings on the local business ads results. Try to encourage reviews from your customers. Don’t fake it! Google can easily find out and you may get yourself booted out from your local map listings. I have seen in many successful listings where there are no reviews. However, try to encourage reviews anyway as reviews does help promote your site to other potential visitors/customers as well.

11. Obviously, example to be successful in the listings for ‘Sydney widgets’, your site content should be ‘Sydney widgets’ relevant.

12. Basics of SEO – optimise the title, meta description and keyword tags for your keywords.

13. There are occasions where your listing may disappear, log into your local business centre again and update it again (example, re-upload photos, re-edit your description etc) and it should come back up again in an hour or so (from my experience)

14. I do believe that part of the local business listings’ algorithm, Google does look at external links going to your site as well. Example, if you have other sites linking to you with the link text ‘Sydney widgets’, I am sure this will help as well.

Below are some other techniques which I have not used listed by others that have said to improve the local business results:

• Include your phone number whenever you write a description of your company on a third party website.
• Include your address and phone number at the bottom of every page.
• Include the name of your city and state in your website’s content, titles, descriptions and page headers (I reckon this is quite an important component, so try to do it although I haven’t done this)

I found these above points from leveltendesign.com & traffikd.com and they have some very good pointers on how to improve/increase your Google local business listings as well.

10 Secrets Of The Stinking Rich

Wanna get stinkin rich? SmartCompany.com.au has an article today telling you the 10 ways to get dirty stinkin" rich by learning from the some of Australia"s richest entrepreneurs. SmartCompany is Australia"s online magazine for entrepreneurs & SMEs and it"s worth subscribing to their email newsletter.


Be prepared to work and work and work
The secret of most successful entrepreneurs is not that they are particularly smart or insightful. Rather, most have an incredible capacity for work. Most successful entrepreneurs still work seven days a week, even when they have made their millions. Gerry Harvey even turned his favorite holiday spot at Byron Bay into a luxury resort – money never rests.Be a serial entrepreneur
Few of Australia"s richest business people strike it lucky on their first try. Queensland billionaire Terry Peabody, who now runs waste management business Transpacific, has successfully floated three companies, including a cement business and a truck company.
Seven Network boss Kerry Stokes tried everything from trucking and property development before becoming a media mogul. Perth billionaire Stan Perron has tried his hand at earthmoving, ice rinks, airlines and car retailing.

Even when they find a particularly successful venture, the stinking rich always keep their fingers in a number of pies.

Be prepared to take at least one big risk
Every stinking rich person had at least one moment early in their career when everything was on the line – all their money, all the bank"s money, their house, their reputation and their future.

Aussie Home Loans founder John Symond put everything into his first business, Mortgage Acceptance Group, and lost $10 million, his home and his marriage when it collapsed. He"s now worth almost $600 million, which goes to show you can survive, and prosper, even if your big gamble fails.

Follow your passion and skills
Can"t decide which type of billion-dollar business you want to be in? Start by thinking about the things that you really love. Love fashion? Then start a fashion label, just like Sass & Bide founders Sarah-Jane Clarke and Heidi Middleton did.
Bruce Gordon followed his love of entertainment (he was once a stage magician) into the film industry before building the WIN regional television empire. Tasmanian Allen Hansen loved diving for abalone, so he built one of Australia"s largest seafood companies.
Cool, dispassionate analysis is important in building a business, but some good old-fashioned enthusiasm is also essential, particularly to get you through the tough times.

Build networks
It is incredible how many of Australia"s most successful business people are old friends. John Singleton and Gerry Harvey? They backpacked together through Europe. Solomon Lew and Lindsay Fox? Old friends. Jack Cowin and Brett Blundy? They know each other well and are co-investors in Sydney Harbour Bridge tourist attraction BridgeClimb.

Networking can sometimes be a time-consuming (and even boring) process, but having influential friends is always an asset.

Go it alone
When you are trying to grow your company quickly, there is a huge temptation to sell a slice of the business in order to fund expansion. Don"t do it.

People like Richard Pratt, Lindsay Fox, David Hains and Harry Triguboff are billionaires because they have resisted the temptation to sell out to venture capitalists or investment bankers.

If you do have to float or sell shares in your business, make sure you keep a majority stake. The stinking rich don’t manage by committee.

Anticipate future trends
One of the richest men in the world, Microsoft founder Bill Gates, built an empire by knowing what consumers want before they know themselves. The Australian business scene is full of similar examples.

“Crazy" John Ilhan picked the mobile phone boom better than anyone else. Paul and Andrew Bassat started the online job ads business Seek when the majority of employers were placing newspaper ads. Eddy Groves built Australia"s first corporate child-care company, ABC Learning Centres, and now dominates the sector.
Sell when the price is right
Timing is everything, and if you want to get stinking rich, you"ve got to know when to cut and run. Retail king Solomon Lew is a genius at picking the top of the market and has recently locked in big profits on his stakes in Coles Group, Colorado and fashion chain Witchery.

In the 1990s, recruitment industry veterans Andrew Banks and Geoff Morgan sold their recruitment company for a big price and bought it back, netting them more than $100 million. Kerry Packer famously did the same with the Nine Network.

Go global
The Australian economy is relatively small and mature, so many local entrepreneurs have been forced to go overseas to build their empire. For money managers like hedge fund guru Michael Hintze (worth $600 million) being based in London means ready access to European clients and capital markets.

If Paul Stoddard tried to base his aircraft spare parts business in Australia, he simply wouldn"t have enough customers, but over in Europe he has as much work as he can handle.
Get into mining or financial services
If you want to get rich quick, find a patch of dirt with some minerals in it and start digging. If that"s not an option, start an investment bank or funds management business. Resources and financial services will continue to be the hottest sectors in the Australian economy.

Sales People are the Voice of the Market

Today I finally truly understand why salespeople in the sales department are always in conflict with the marketers within the marketing department. It"s because one is out in the market and the latter is not. Sales people are the voice of the market, they are the one that truly understands what the market wants and needs. They are actively listening and have a full understanding of the market. It is this understanding that allows them to sell. In contrast, marketers are not out there. In many cases, they base their understanding from information gathered by their sales guys or from their market research team. When marketers truly think that they know the market inside out; no! often they are wrong. They only know from the outside. Put it this way, salespeople are the insiders and the marketing guys are the outsiders so to speak. Of course, I am not saying that marketers do not understand. All I am saying is that the really good marketers are the ones that listens and work together with their salespeople. It is those bad ones that will always have ever conflict because both do not think alike. Sales guys, don"t get too cocky just because you can sell. You still need the marketers to provide you the marketing ammunitions to help you do your job. At the end of the day, its about integration and collaboration of both expertise.

Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR)

The primary goal of any business is to make money and in today"s world, it is not just about making money and profits. More and more large organizations are beginning to understand that there needs to be a good balance of both evil and good. Evil in the sense of making money and good where the organization consider the interests of both environment and humanity.

Why CSR? Here are some benefits of CSR:

1. Enhanced reputation and brand image:


Reputation is an important sustainable competitive advantage, because it is very hard to build and cannot be easily mimicked by competitors. A organization"s reputation results from trust by its stakeholders. A strong reputation in ethical environmental and social responsibility can help a organization build this trust. Several major brands, such as The Body Shop & the Co-operative Group are built on ethical values

2. Increased profit and customer loyalty:

Several academic studies have shown a direct correlation between socially responsible business practices and positive financial performance:

    • A 1997 DePaul University study found that organizations with a defined corporate commitment to ethical principles do better financially (based on annual sales/revenues) than organizations that don"t.


    • An 11-year Harvard University study found that “stakeholder-balanced" organizations showed four times the growth rate and eight times the employment growth when compared to organizations that are shareholder-only focused.


    • According to the Millennium Poll on CSR, the majority of 25,000 people interviewed in 23 countries want organizations to contribute to society beyond making a profit.


  • Research has shown that there is a growing desire by consumers not only to buy good and safe products, but they also want to know that what they buy was produced in a socially and environmentally responsible way such as “sweatshop-free” and child-labor-free clothing, smaller environmental impact.

3. Creating new business opportunities:

Experience gained through addressing CSR challenges also provides opportunities for organizations to create new business opportunities.

4. Increased ability to attract and retain employees:

A organization"s dedication to CSR can be an important aid to recruitment and retention compared with competitors. People want to work for a organization that is in accordance with their own values and beliefs.

    • 78% of employees would rather work for an ethical and reputable organization than receive a higher salary. (The Cherenson Group, www.csreurope.org)


    • In interviewing 150 top employees in 24 organizations, the UK consulting firm, Stanton Marris, learned that employer reputation was a key factor in accepting a job offer.


  • 76% of those polled by the Cone/Roper Corporate Citizenship Study said a organization"s “commitment to causes" was an important consideration in deciding where to work.

5. Increased productivity and morale:

Committing CSR internally to improve working conditions, lessen environmental impacts can lead to increased productivity and staff morale where the workforce are more reliable, enthusiastic and efficient.

6. Attracting investors and business partners:

Organizations addressing ethical, social, and environmental responsibilities have easier access to capital through investors and better conditions for loans on international money markets. It is also easier to do merger/acquisition negotiations, finding business partners and suppliers as well as smoother workforce integration.

A 2001 study showed that 12% of total investment in the USA was of a socially responsible nature. Likewise, there are were 313 green, social and ethical funds operating in Europe in June 2003, showing a 12% increase in the last eighteen months.

6. Managing risk:

The more an organization is committed to CSR, the better it is able to manage risk. Large corporations and well-known brands are the first target of litigation for CSR misconduct such as the highly publicized “Nike sweatshops". The consequences could be huge in terms of market share or capital loss. A tarnished reputation might require years to rebuild and cost a large sum of money.

7. Preferential government and regulatory treatment:

Governments and regulators are more lenient with organizations that are more committed to CSR. Preferential treatment may be given when applying for permits or permission to do something and less intervention in their business through taxation and regulations.
Some believe that CSR programs are often undertaken in an effort to distract the public from the ethical questions posed by their core operations. Some that have been accused include British Petroleum (BP) and British American Tobacco (BAT).

8. Increased operational efficiency and reduced operating costs:

Operational efficiency can be increased by reducing waste production and operating costs can be reduced by less water usage, increasing energy efficiency and selling recycled materials. At a broader scale, such CSR actions can result in environmental, social and economic benefits.

9. Innovation in market through cooperation with local communities:

CSR requires cooperation with the local communities and relationships can be improved. This can help organizations in tailoring products and services as well as more rapid acceptance to local markets.

Now, how do you implement a CSR plan/model?

There a few things to think about before you begin a CSR plan. Begin with a big picture, can you do a better job in making our planet, its environment and its inhabitants a better world to live in? If yes, think about how your organization can impact our world; its people and how you as an organization can create a better, fair, just and compassionate world.

To achieve success, such ethical social and environmental values need to be embedded in your business culture: business practices, vision and plan which begin at the highest level.

To begin, you need to do a self assessment of what priority areas you need to implement based on your unique business strengths. Key stakeholders should be involved in the process where discussions can happen so that everybody can buy into the concept. First, identify any risk that may cause reputation and/or financial risk to your organization. Second, identify those socially responsible initiatives that are the most cost effective to implement. Once you have developed your CSR priorities, you need to establish a code of principles conduct, clear value statement where the whole organization needs to commit. You then need to develop policy to formalize and articulate this commitment, and create programs to implement this policy. To make the programs meaningful, organizations need to provide training and education, and plan visible, memorable activities. The CSR plan should be implemented across the organization. It should be localized for different markets and it should have measurement techniques. Open communication with stakeholders (community, employees, customers, shareholders, suppliers and the environment) is also vital as they need to feel that they can respect and trust a company"s values. Finally, report the success of the programs and measure the progress as your CSR investment needs to be justified to shareholders.

Firing Your Clients

Recently, I had a client whom I had a number of times would like to say to him: “Sorry S…., I would like to stop doing business with you!" This is a client who constantly raise his voice at you and calls you every 30 mins. Calls you on the weekend and always says the big Fxxx & Bullshit words. In fact, he is happy with our service but because he is such an inconsiderate and a rude man; it makes it so difficult to do business with him. This is one client whom I think deserves to be on a ‘firing" list. Here are 11 more that you and I if we come across should definitely fire:

  1. THE DISILLUSIONED consistently expresses disappointment with your work even though it is of good quality and conforms to spec. A client who is constitutionally incapable of appreciating your work is not a client you should be involved with.
  2. THE SUSPICIOUS consistently expresses a lack of trust, disdain for your work, or questions your integrity. A client who is constitutionally incapable of trusting in your expertise is not a client you should be involved with.
  3. THE CHISELER consistently complains about your bill, even though it conforms to the estimate they agreed to. A client who is constitutionally incapable of honoring a deal is not a client you should be involved with.
  4. THE BULLY consistently is verbally abusive or threatening to you.
  5. THE SOMETHING-FOR-NOTHING consistently increases the scope of the project but refuses to pay for the additional work. A client who is constitutionally incapable of offering additional value in exchange for additional value is not a client you should be involved with.
  6. THE SLOW PAY consistently pays invoices late. In any business, cash flow is king. A client who is constitutionally incapable of paying a bill on time for work that was delivered on time is not a client you should be involved with.
  7. THE FLAKE consistently is late meeting responsibilities, but still holds you to the original schedule. A client who is constitutionally incapable of understanding that in order for a project to be delivered on-time, everyone must meet their obligations is not a client you should be involved with.
  8. THE LIAR consistently lies to you. A client who is constitutionally incapable of being honest with you is not a client you should be involved with
  9. THE CLINGER consistently makes unreasonable demands regarding your availability. A client who is constitutionally incapable of applying a “reasonable man" standard to requests for your time is not a client you should be involved with.
  10. THE BLACKMAILER consistently refuses to pay an invoice until you perform additional work at no charge. A client who is constitutionally incapable of engaging in good-faith dealings is not a client you should be involved with.
  11. THE MONEY PIT consistently is unprofitable. A client who is constitutionally incapable of offering you a fair rate for your services is not a client you should be involved with.